When there is no need for a robot to take over
Very early in the evolution of surgery, it was realized that surgical trauma triggers reactions and is responsible for the appearance of undesirable effects such as pain, bleeding, infections, ileus, etc.
Since the beginning of the previous century, efforts had begun to reduce surgical trauma without altering the final result. After much experimentation the result was the first Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy in 1987, an achievement which paved the way for the magical world of Minimally Invasive or Laparoscopic Surgery.
The difference between laparoscopic and open surgery is that the former completely eliminates the need for an open incision. The surgeon performs the same surgical operation as he would do using open surgery. Long and very fine tools and cameras are used, which reach the target organ through tubes (trocars) with a diameter of half or one centimetre placed at the start of the operation in the abdominal wall. At the start of the procedure the abdomen is inflated using carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to create more space. When the surgery is complete, this air is removed, the trocars are removed and the small incisions are sutured.
Although I had the good fortune to train in open surgery, my personal choice and preference is for Minimally Invasive Surgery, which I opt for and apply wherever possible.